Some great things that you can plant this time of year are spinach, winter lettuce, carrots, cabbage, onions, arugula, garden peas, and collards among other things.
I've planted this fall a few things in my garden...
Rouge D'Hiver lettuce
Scarlet Nantes Carrot
Tribeca Leaf Cabbage
Copenhagen Market Cabbage
Bloomsdale Long Standing
Green Arrow Peas
Dutch Yellow Shallots
Yellow Potato Onions
Left-over Green Onions from the grocery store. These onions keep growing greens if you only clip the green leaves and don't pull up the plants.
I'll have to wait a bit to see how they grow.